In aquaculture, feed becomes a significant factor in the structure of production costs and can reach more than 70% of the total cost incurred. Therefore, it becomes an essential factor for cultivators in Indonesia to adjust the target harvest to feed needs. Design and conceptual model that can be implemented and can be expected to improve the profitability of cultivators.

With the rapid development of inland fisheries, the problems faced are increasingly diverse, ranging from serious ecological problems and environmental impacts such as hyper-nitrification caused by sediment due to excess feeding.

The impact is the decreasing water quality in ponds that can indirectly increase fish mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to have an integrated application system that can precisely estimate feed needs and estimate the harvest quantity and connected to the aquaculture supply chain management.

There have been several estimation systems that have been developed and focused on factors such as the mass weight of fish using image analysis and neural networks and infrared reflection system, fish length using an underwater stereo system, the number of fish in the pond using image density grading and local regression, automatic feeding based on standard feeding protocol (SFP) and the use of hybrid methods in determining the quantity of feed used in the form of factorial bioenergetics and fuzzy logic control.

“The application of technology in the aquaculture process shows that a technological approach in determining estimates and monitoring the cultivation process can significantly increase the profitability of cultivators.”

At the end of this study, based on the findings of gap research and problems in the field, the authors formulated ecosystem design and conceptual models to improve farmers welfare.

Systematic Mapping Process

A Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) is conducted to build a clarity scheme and research structure in software engineering. The results analysis focuses on the frequency of publications that share the same category.

“The first step that must be done in conducting a SMS is defining the research question.”

To follow, a review of the scope needs to be taken. From a predetermined research question, the article search process is done by determining keywords first based on the research question that has been defined before.

Then, the article search process is done by using “OR” and “AND” operators to obtain appropriate results, focusing on articles published after 2010 and conducted through ScienceDirect, IEEE, and Emerald journal sources.

In performing searches, inclusion and exclusion criteria are used to filter found articles. This filtering aims to limit the relevance and quality of the paper found.

Result and Discussion

The following process conducted after the search process is classified according to the characteristics and focus of each research that has been divided into six categories, namely validation research, evaluation research, solution proposal, philosophical papers, opinion papers, and experience papers by reading the title and abstract of each selected article.

“The results of the classification of the process are divided to the focus of the area in the field of aquaculture or divided into variables that affect the process of aquaculture.”

The focus area is divided into six areas: feed, water, dimension, growth, behavior, and managerial. After the analysis process for each research topic is done, the last step is to identify the use of technological approaches that were carried out.

The question is whether it integrates with fishery supply chain management or stands alone as an innovation that increases certain factors in the cultivation process. This analysis process is done to know the extent of integration in fishery supply chain management.

The mapping results show that there has been no research that focuses on utilizing estimation systems integrated with the ecosystem of fishery supply chain management so that there is a gap in the research that can be met.

Digital Supply Chain (DSC)

Digital Supply Chain (DSC) is an intelligent, value-based, and efficient process to generate new revenue and business value forms or organizations by leveraging new approaches and new technologies. DSC has ushered the supply chain and logistics industry into rapid change and new innovations.

Designing an effective supply chain management process with the aim of conducting DSC transformation can be started by integrating, analyzing, automation, reconfiguration, and digitizing.

“Digitization in Aquaculture Feed becomes a significant factor in the structure of production costs and can reach more than 70% of the total cost incurred.”

In the distribution and marketing sector, fishery products are time-critical products. If the ready-to harvest products are not immediately distributed, then the cultivation process will require a much greater cost because the need for feed and care is also increasing.

However, there are still minimal innovations that depart from the point of view of the fishery supply chain. This can be done by integrating from upstream to downstream in the aquaculture process by paying attention to its impact on the level of profitability.

Methodology

The methodology conducted in this study is divided into two parts. The first part of the literature study was conducted to discover the latest technological developments in the aquaculture sector, where at this stage, gap research was found.

In the next section, based on the gap research found and data collected from case studies in the field, the author formulated a conceptual model based on digitization in the DSC. A single case study approach with the Indonesian Catfish Industry Association (APCI) is conducted to understand how digitization can help improve cultivator profitability by integrating the supply chains process.

Ecosystem Design and Conceptual Model of Integrated Estimation System

Starting from the research gap and problems found based on data collected through APCI in the field, this study proposed an ecosystem design and conceptual model of the system that aims to digitize by integrating farmers and feed suppliers and buyers in one application ecosystem.

Four actors in the fisheries supply chain management process can share information and become integrated with each other. In this case, the association acts as an advisor. This is done to overcome resistance to the use of technology at the cultivator level.

“In practice, monitoring data is sent by farmers to advisors via short messages or social media so that they can be input into the system by advisors.”

Monitoring data that can later be used to procure feed and provide information on timing and estimated harvest quantity to potential customers so that the supply chain can running from upstream to downstream in one application ecosystem.

Supply chain literature has broadly acknowledged the dominant role of Information Technology (IT) that assists in improving operational and competitive performance in the collaborative supply chain. They state that IT and supply chain management together create digitally held supply chains.

“Complex supply chains can be efficiently coordinated when both the central unit and its partners have been equipped with IT infrastructure at the same level.”

Also included in the study, the conceptual system model was built with an estimation system approach that is integrated with the supply chain management ecosystem, the estimated need for feed can be raised during the cultivation planning process so that cultivators can directly get an estimate of most of the capital spent for a certain number of fish in the pond to be used.

The supplier then gets the feed requirement information from the integrated system. After that, the process of determining the estimated harvest period and quantity of harvest yield can be known after the monitoring process is done by including feed reports, fish weight, and fish deaths that occur.

The report obtained periodically estimates the date and quantity of harvest from the report of fish weight growth which can be used by market sales and auction to bring the estimated harvest production to market before it is harvested.

From the conceptual process flow of the model above, the subsequent development that can be done is by implementing a conceptual model into real case industry applications.

Conclusion

From the results of the literature review analysis, it can be concluded that the development of information technology in aquaculture has been widely done and spread evenly on every topic in the process of aquaculture.

“However, all technologies found in the process of the literature review stands alone without having integration with other systems following the concept of integration in the supply chain management.”

Starting from the research gap that has been found and data collected from the author field, an ecosystem design and conceptual estimation system model was formulated that can integrate farmers, suppliers, and customers in one application ecosystem.

Future research that can be done is implementing and evaluating the ecosystem design and conceptual model that was formulated into real case industry applications.

This is a summarized version developed by the editorial team of Aquaculture Magazine based on the review article titled “DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL MODEL INTEGRATED ESTIMATION SYSTEM FOR FISH GROWTH AND FEED REQUIREMENT IN AQUACULTURE SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT” developed by: MOHAMMAD ARDA DWI ARDIANTO – Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, MUDJAHIDIN – Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology.
The original article was published on 2021, through ELSEVIER under the use of a creative commons open access license.
The full version can be accessed freely online through this link: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2021.12.162.

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