Vannamei shrimp production with super-intensive technology is the future orientation of aquaculture systems with the concept of low volume high density, that is by not requiring a large area, so it was easily controlled, but has high productivity. Therefore, shrimp production with a super intensive system can be successful and profitable if the production process is applied properly.
Even in this condition of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for Vannamei shrimp exports to the U.S. market remained stable. It was recorded that the total export of Indonesia Vannamei shrimp to the U.S. market in April 2019 was 9,544 MT (metric tons) and in April 2020 to 13,804 MT, which increases of up to 45%, which places Indonesia as the second largest of exporting country to the U.S. market.
The advantages of Vannamei shrimp are a high response to feed, resistance to disease, high survival rate, high stocking density, and relatively short maintenance time of about 90 – 100 days per cycle. The increased production of Vannamei shrimp will continue to meet the demand community both at home and abroad.
“Various efforts have been made, especially through the development of aquaculture technology applications.”
This study aims to examine the production process and product performance of super-intensive system Vannamei shrimp on an industrial scale that applied at PT. Sumbawa Sukses Lestari Aquaculture, West Nusa Tenggara.
This study consists of several stages of production, including pond and media preparations with an area of 3,025 m², selection and stocking seeds with a stock density of 250 tails/m², monitoring of growth, management of feed, management of water quality, monitoring of pest and disease, and harvest.
Production performance parameters include survival rate (SR), biomass production, average body weight (ABW), average daily growth (ADG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Water quality parameters observed during maintenance include temperature, brightness, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, TOM, and nitrite.
The data obtained were then tabulated using the application Ms. Excel to produce representative data in the form of graphs and tables and analyzed descriptively.
Results And Discussion
The pond land used with size 55 x 55 x 2 m is covered with HDPE plastics. Pond preparation begins with drying the pond bottom for 7 – 10 days. Drying of ponds aims to speed up the oxidation process of residual organic matter, killing pathogenic bacteria, and pest organisms.
“The pond bottom needs to be cleaned of dirt such as moss, barnacles, oysters, and organic sludge leftover from the cycle previously.”
The setting of paddlewheels and blowers aims to ensure a continuous supply of oxygen to the maintenance medium. Dissolved oxygen is one of the most important water quality variables for supporting shrimp life. According to Sumitro et al. (2020), the use of diffusers can increase the survival rate of organism aquatic production.
Seawater that has been accommodated in a reservoir pond 150 m x 60 m deposited for 3 – 5 days, before being distributed to pond plots. Heroecobalance (HEB), treatment was given 2 days after the water entered the plot to grow a balance of microorganism populations in the pond ecosystem.
Seed Selection and Stocking
The success of a shrimp production business was influenced by the quality of the seeds stocked in the pond.
Before stocking, seed selection is carried out through visual observation, such as appropriate body length, uniformity, seeds activity, and stress response. The stress response is known through the salinity test and formalin test which aims to see the level of seed resistance to a given stress factor.
Management of feed properly needs to be done, so that it can give optimal production results. Optimal feeding is given to support the growth of cultivated shrimp. Feeding can be done in two ways, such as: using an automatic feeder and manually spreading it using a raft.
Feed management is important in making a feeding program so that ADG and FCR at harvest can match the target. Feed control needs to be carried out to see how much feed is used up in one feeding. If in 3 units of feed given If all is used up, then the feed will be added by 30 – 50% of the feed program implemented.
Water Quality Management
Optimal water quality is one of the requirements in cultivation activities.
The quality of water in the maintenance container must be controlled to produce optimal seed growth. The observed water quality parameters in this research, including temperature, brightness, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, TOM, and nitrite.
“Based on the results of water quality measurement data, it is known that during maintenance, conditions of temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and TOM are according to the optimal range. “
Several other parameters, like brightness, alkalinity, and nitrite reached the limit of the range optimal due to maintenance that reaches DOC of 100 affects the condition of water quality. Overall, the water quality condition in this study is still in the optimal range in supporting the growth of cultured shrimp.
Water quality management including lime and siphoning is carried out regularly to maintain optimal water quality conditions. Giving lime works to stabilize and raise the pH of pond water. Giving lime is given upon entering DOC of 15 because the pH conditions have started to fluctuate.
The type of lime used is quicklime (CaO), which was previously dissolved in a container filled with seawater and spread into the pond. Giving lime is also done when it rains because in that condition the shrimp experience stress due to fluctuations in media temperature.
Drastic temperature changes are caused by water rain that enters the pond and causes a lot of molting shrimp. Molting causes the condition of the lobster to be very weak and emits a fishy smell from the meat.
“This triggers cannibalism, which attracts the appetite of its predators, namely lobster healthy condition or not molting.”
Siphon cleaning is very important to minimize the accumulation of effluent in the pond bottom. The more feed that is given to the pond, the more often siphon cleaning frequency.
Pest and Disease Monitoring
Pests found during the rearing process were crabs and baby monitor lizards.
The presence of pests can become predators for shrimp, resulting in low SR when harvest. Identification of diseases that attack shrimp was not found during the study takes place.
However, the Total Plate Count (TPC) test found the presence of Vibrio sp. which is still within the normal range in the maintenance media samples.
There are probiotics in maintenance media that can suppress the growth of Vibrio sp. which appears.
Growing Vannamei shrimp with a stocking density of 250 fish/m2 , at harvestable to produce ABW 22 g/ head. This correlates with the value of ADG shrimp, each sampling continues to increase up to 0.40 g/day at harvest.
“According to Pratiwi et al. (2016), growth in crustaceans is a change the increase in length and body weight that occurs periodically after molting.”
Molting occurs in animals with the exoskeleton, including lobsters where the old skin is removed and then replaced with a new skin. Factor affecting the occurrence of molting, among others:
- external factors, namely environmental quality (temperature, salinity, or pH), nutrition, and postacclimatization or transportation treatment,
- internal factors, namely production of Molting Hormone (ecdysteroid) and Molt Inhibiting Hormone (hormone inhibiting molting).
Before partial harvest, dry sampling was carried out to determine the ABW of shrimp to be harvested. This harvesting is done by spreading nets at the pointal ready determined.
The total harvest is done by lowering the water slowly through the floodgate until it runs out, which is preceded by installing a waring (harvest bag) on the floodgate.
If there is still water left in the aquaculture pond, the nets will be spread so that the shrimp contained in the pond is no longer left. The results of the wastewater from the harvest will be channeled to the waste collection tank, to maintain water quality used in aquaculture activities.
“The total shrimp production in the research ponds showed an SR of 71%, biomass reaching 8.96 tons, harvest size 45-32, and FCR 1.6, and no fatalities caused by infection.”
Based on the results of the total production, it shows that the cultivation of super-intensive Vannamei shrimp enlargement by applying SOPs and actual conditions environmental quality supports optimal production performance.
The process of Vannamei shrimp cultivation on an industrial scale with a super-intensive system that is applied by PT. Sumbawa Sukses Lestari Aquaculture, West Nusa Tenggara produces optimal shrimp harvest.
Production performance of Vannamei shrimp reared up to DOC of 100 has SR 71%, biomass as much as 8.96 tons, harvest size 45 – 32, ABW 22 g/tail, ADG0.4 g/day, and FCR 1.6.
This is a summarized version developed by the editorial team of Aquaculture Magazine based on the review article titled “PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF SUPER INTENSIVE VANNAMEI SHRIMP LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI AT PT. SUMBAWA SUKSES LESTARI AQUACULTURE, WEST NUSA TENGGARA”, developed by: RIFQAH PRATIWI Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Kupang, I NYOMAN SUDIARSA, PIETER AMALO – Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Kupang, AND YUSUF WIDYANANDA WIARSO UTOMO – Marine and Fisheries Polytechnic Kupang.
The original article was published on SEPTEMBER 2021, through JOURNAL OF AQUACULTURE AND FISH HEALTH under the use of a creative commons open access license.
The full version can be accessed freely online through this link: 10.20473/jafh.v11i1.21143